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BS EN 1997-2:2007

Current
Current

The latest, up-to-date edition.

Eurocode 7. Geotechnical design Ground investigation and testing
Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Language(s)

English

Published date

31-10-2010

Foreword
Section 1 - General
Section 2 - Planning of ground investigations
Section 3 - Soil and rock sampling and groundwater measurements
Section 4 - Field tests in soil and rock
Section 5 - Laboratory tests on soil and rock
Section 6 - Ground investigation report
Annex A (informative) - List of test results of geotechnical
        test standards
Annex B (informative) - Planning of geotechnical investigations
Annex C (informative) - Example of groundwater pressure derivations
        based on a model and long term measurements
Annex D (informative) - Cone and piezocone penetration tests
Annex E (informative) - Pressure meter test
Annex F (informative) - Standard penetration test
Annex G (informative) - Dynamic probing test
Annex H (informative) - Weight sounding test
Annex I (informative) - Field vane test
Annex J (informative) - Flat dilatometer test Example of correlations
        between E[OED] and DMT results
Annex K (informative) - Plate loading test
Annex L (informative) - Detailed information on preparation of soil
        specimens for testing
Annex M (informative) - Detailed information on tests for
        classification, identification and description of soil
Annex N (informative) - Detailed information on chemical testing
        of soil
Annex O (informative) - Detailed information on strength index
        testing of soil
Annex P (informative) - Detailed information on strength testing
        of soil
Annex Q (informative) - Detailed information on compressibility
        testing of soil
Annex R (informative) - Detailed information on compaction testing
        of soil
Annex S (informative) - Detailed information on permeability testing
        of soil
Annex T (informative) - Preparation of specimen for testing on rock
        material
Annex U (informative) - Classification testing of rock material
Annex V (informative) - Swelling testing of rock material
Annex W (informative) - Strength testing of rock material
Annex X (informative) - Bibliography

Gives rules supplementary to EN 1997-1 related to: (a) planning and reporting of ground investigations; (b) general requirements for a number of commonly used laboratory and field tests; (c) interpretation and evaluation of test results; (d) derivation of values of geotechnical parameters and coefficients.

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 Scope of Eurocode 7

(1) EN 1997 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002which establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability.

(2) EN 1997 is intended to be applied to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works. It is subdivided into various separate parts (see 1.1.2).

(3) EN 1997 is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability and durability of structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.

(4) Numerical values of actions on buildings and civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction. Actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997 .

(5) Separate European Standards are intended to be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. They are denoted in the relevant sections.

(6) In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to conform to the assumptions of the design rules.

(7) EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this standard.

1.1.2 Scope of EN 1997-2

(1) EN 1997-2 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1997-1 and provides rules supplementary to EN 1997-1 related to:

  • planning and reporting of ground investigations;

  • general requirements for a number of commonly used laboratory and field tests;

  • interpretation and evaluation of test results;

  • derivation of values of geotechnical parameters and coefficients.

In addition, examples of the application of field test results to design are given.

NOTE Establishment of characteristic values is covered in EN 1997-1 .

(2) This document gives no specific provisions for environmental ground investigations.

(3) Only commonly used geotechnical laboratory and field tests are covered in this standard. These were selected on the basis of their importance in geotechnical practice, availability in commercial geotechnical laboratories and existence of an accepted testing procedure in Europe. The laboratory tests on soils are mainly applicable to saturated soils.

NOTE It is expected that updates of the present standard will gradually include laboratory and field tests covering additional aspects of soil and rock behaviour.

(4) The provisions of this standard apply primarily to projects of geotechnical category 2, as defined in 2.1 of EN 1997-1:2004 . The ground investigation requirements for category 1 projects are normally limited as the verifications often will be based on local experience. For geotechnical category 3 projects, the amount of investigations required will normally be at least the same as indicated for geotechnical category 2 projects in the following sections. Additional investigations and more advanced tests, related to the circumstances that place a project in geotechnical category 3, may be necessary.

(5) The derivation of parameter values is dedicated primarily to the design of pile and spread foundations based on field testing, as detailed in Annexes D, E, F and G of EN 1997-1:2004 .

Committee
B/526/3
DevelopmentNote
Supersedes DD ENV 1997-2 and DD ENV 1997-3. Partially supersedes BS 1377-9(1990). (04/2007) National Annex of this document is also available. See BS EN 1997-2 NA. (12/2009) Also available as part of BS KIT 211. (08/2010)
DocumentType
Standard
Pages
202
PublisherName
British Standards Institution
Status
Current
Supersedes
UnderRevision

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08/30145245 DC : DRAFT JULY 2008 BS EN 1990 AMD1 - UK NATIONAL ANNEX FOR EUROCODE - BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
BS 8574:2014 Code of practice for the management of geotechnical data for ground engineering projects
09/30093258 DC : DRAFT JUNE 2009 BS 8006-1 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS AND OTHER FILLS
BS 8006-2(2011) : 2011 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS - PART 2: SOIL NAIL DESIGN
14/30268442 DC : 0 BS 5930 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR GROUND INVESTIGATIONS
BS 8006-1(2010) : 2010 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRENGTHENED/REINFORCED SOILS AND OTHER FILLS
BS 8004:2015 Code of practice for foundations
BS 5930:2015+A1:2020 Code of practice for ground investigations
BS 8002:2015 Code of practice for earth retaining structures
BS 5930(1999) : 1999 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SITE INVESTIGATIONS
11/30214388 DC : 0 BS 8103-1 - STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS - PART 1: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STABILITY, SITE INVESTIGATION, FOUNDATIONS AND GROUND FLOOR SLABS FOR HOUSING
08/30189211 DC : DRAFT SEP 2008 PD 6694-1 - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO TRAFFIC LOADING TO BS EN 1997-1:2004
BS 8103-1:2011 Structural design of low-rise buildings Code of practice for stability, site investigation, foundations, precast concrete floors and ground floor slabs for housing
15/30301520 DC : 0 BS 8004 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR FOUNDATIONS (FORMERLY CP 2004)
BS 6349-8:2007 Maritime structures Code of practice for the design of Ro-Ro ramps, linkspans and walkways
BS 6031:2009 Code of practice for earthworks
15/30302283 DC : 0 BS 8081 - GROUTED ANCHORS - CODE OF PRACTICE
12/30250709 DC : 0 BS 6349-1-3 - MARITIME WORKS - PART 1-3: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PLANNING, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF STRUCTURES SET IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT - GEOTECHNICS
15/30301518 DC : 0 BS 8002 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES
09/30093255 DC : 0 BS 6031 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTHWORKS
BS EN 1997-2 NA : 2007 UK NATIONAL ANNEX TO EUROCODE 7: GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN - PART 2: GROUND INVESTIGATION AND TESTING
13/30244525 DC : 0 BS 8574 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL DATA FOR GROUND ENGINEERING PROJECTS
BS 8081:2015 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR GROUTED ANCHORS
BS PAS 8810(2016) : 2016 TUNNEL DESIGN - DESIGN OF CONCRETE SEGMENTAL TUNNEL LININGS - CODE OF PRACTICE
10/30190274 DC : 0 BS 5930+A2 - CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SITE INVESTIGATIONS
BIP 2205 : 2011 CONCISE EUROCODES: GEOTECHNICS: BS EN 1997: EUROCODES 7
BS 5930:2015 Code of practice for ground investigations

DIN 4094-1:2002-06 SUBSOIL - FIELD INVESTIGATIONS - PART 1: CONE PENETRATION TESTS
EN ISO/TS 17892-12 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 12: DETERMINATION OF ATTERBERG LIMITS
ASTM D 422 : 1963 : R2002 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
SN 670816 : 1964 METERIAUX PIERREUX; SEDIMENTOMETRIE PAR LA METHODE DE L'AREOMETRE
EN ISO/TS 17892-10 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 10: DIRECT SHEAR TESTS
EN ISO 22476-1:2012/AC:2013 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 1: Electrical cone and piezocone penetration test - Technical Corrigendum 1 (ISO 22476-1:2012/Cor 1:2013)
NFP 94 091 : 2001 PR SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - SWELLING TEST WITH OEDOMETER - DETERMINATION OF DEFORMATIONS BY LOADING SEVERAL TEST PIECES
NFP 94 072 : 1995 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY VANE TEST
EN ISO 22476-2:2005/A1:2011 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - FIELD TESTING - PART 2: DYNAMIC PROBING (ISO 22476-2:2005)
NFP 1994 071-1 : 1994 SOIL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DIRECT SHEAR TEST WITH SHEAR BOX APPARATUS - PART 1: DIRECT SHEAR
NFP 94 053 : 1991 SOILS INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF FINE SOILS - CUTTING CURB, MOULD AND WATER IMMERSION METHODS
EN ISO 22476-5:2012 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 5: Flexible dilatometer test (ISO 22476-5:2012)
CEN ISO/TS 22476-11:2005 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 11: Flat dilatometer test (ISO 22476-11:2005)
NFP 94 054 : 1991 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF PARTICLE DENSITY - PYCNOMETER METHOD
BS 1377-7:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Shear strength tests (total stress)
XP P94 041 : 1995 XP SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - GRANULOMETRIC DESCRIPTION - WET SIEVING METHOD
EN ISO/TS 17892-8 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 8: UNCONSOLIDATED UNDRAINED TRIAXIAL TEST
DIN 18125-1:2010-07 SOIL, INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF SOIL - PART 1: LABORATORY TESTS
NFP 94 055 : 1993 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF THE ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT - SOIL CHEMICAL TEST
SN 670340 : 1959
NEN 6743-1 : 2006 GEOTECHNICS - CALCULATION METHOD FOR BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE FOUNDATION - COMPRESSION PILES
NFP 94 078 : 1997 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTS - CBR AFTER IMMERSION - IMMEDIATE CBR - IMMEDIATE BEARING RATIO - MEASUREMENT ON SAMPLE COMPACTED IN CBR MOULD
NFP 94 051 : 1993 SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF ATTERBERG'S LIMITS - LIQUID LIMIT TEST USING CASSAGRANDE APPARATUS - PLASTIC LIMIT TEST ON ROLLED THREAD
CEN ISO/TS 22476-10:2005 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 10: Weight sounding test (ISO/TS 22476-10:2005)
DIN 18122-1:1997-07 SOIL, INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - CONSISTENCY LIMITS - PART 1: DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT AND PLASTIC LIMIT
DIN 18125-2:2011-03 SOIL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF SOIL - PART 2: FIELD TESTS
EN ISO/TS 17892-9 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 9: CONSOLIDATED TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS ON WATER SATURATED SOIL
SN 670345 : 1959
ASTM D 3080 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions
ASTM D 854 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer (Withdrawn 2023)
BS 1377-5:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Compressibility, permeability and durability tests
BS 812-118:1988 Testing aggregates Methods for determination of sulphate content
CEN ISO/TS 17892-1:2004 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing of soil - Part 1: Determination of water content (ISO/TS 17892-1:2004)
DIN 18124:2011-04 SOIL, INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF SOLID PARTICLES - CAPILLARY PYKNOMETER, WIDE MOUTH PYCNOMETER, GAS PYCNOMETER
EN ISO 22476-7:2012 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 7: Borehole jack test (ISO 22476-7:2012)
XP P94 047 : 98 XP SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF THE ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT - IGNITION METHOD
EN ISO/TS 17892-4 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 4: DETERMINATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
DIN 18122-2:2000-09 SOIL - INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - PART 2: DETERMINATION OF THE SHRINKAGE LIMIT
EN ISO/TS 17892-3 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 3: DETERMINATION OF PARTICLE DENSITY - PYCNOMETER METHOD
BS 1377-3:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Chemical and electro-chemical tests
DIN V 1054-100:1996-04 BAUGRUND - SICHERHEITSNACHWEISE IM ERD- UND GRUNDBAU - BERECHNUNG NACH DEM KONZEPT MIT TEILSICHERHEITSBEIWERTEN
EN ISO 22476-4:2012 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 4: Ménard pressuremeter test (ISO 22476-4:2012)
NFP 94 056 : 1996 SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - GRANULOMETRIC ANALYSIS - DRY SIEVING METHOD AFTER WASHING
EN ISO 14689-1 : 2003 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK - PART 1: IDENTIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION
ASTM D 2974 : 2014 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Moisture, Ash, and Organic Matter of Peat and Other Organic Soils
NFP 1994 071-2 : 1994 SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DIRECT SHEAR TEST WITH SHEAR BOX APPARATUS - PART 2: CYCLIC TEST
SN 670321 : 1994 ESSAIS SUR LES SOLS - ESSAI DE GONFLEMENT AU GEL ET ESSAI CRB APRES DEGEL (CRB<(INDEX)F>)
DIN 18123:2011-04 SOIL, INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION
NFP 94 052-1 : 1995 SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - ATTERBERG LIMIT DETERMINATION - PART 1: LIQUID LIMIT - CONE PENETROMETER METHOD
BS 1377-4:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Compaction-related tests
EN ISO/TS 17892-5 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 5: INCREMENTAL LOADING OEDOMETER TEST
DIN 18121-2:2012-02 SOIL, INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - WATERCONTENT - PART 2: DETERMINATION BY RAPID METHODS
ASTM D 2435 : 2004 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
EN ISO 22476-3:2005/A1:2011 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - FIELD TESTING - PART 3: STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (ISO 22476-3:2005)
EN ISO/TS 17892-7 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 7: UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST ON FINE GRAINED SOILS
NS 8017 : 1ED 1991 GEOTECHNICAL TESTING - LABORATORY METHODS - DETERMINATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION PROPERTIES BY ODOMETER TESTING - METHOD USING INCREMENTAL LOADING
DIN 1054:2010-12 Subsoil - Verification of the safety of earthworks and foundations - Supplementary rules to DIN EN 1997-1
EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013 EUROCODE 7: GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN - PART 1: GENERAL RULES
NFP 94 093 : 2014 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF THE COMPACTION REFERENCE VALUES OF A SOIL TYPE - STANDARD PROCTOR TEST
SN 670810C : 1986
EN ISO/TS 17892-6 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 6: FALL CONE TEST
EN ISO/TS 17892-11 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 11: DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY BY CONSTANT AND FALLING HEAD
EN ISO 22476-12:2009 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Field testing - Part 12: Mechanical cone penetration test (CPTM) (ISO 22476-12:2009)
NFP 94 048 : 1996 SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF THE CARBONATE CONTENT - CALCIMETER METHOD
EN ISO 22475-1:2006 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods and groundwater measurements - Part 1: Technical principles for execution (ISO 22475-1:2006)
EN 1990:2002/A1:2005/AC:2010 EUROCODE - BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
BS 1377-8:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Shear strength tests (effective stress)
EN ISO/TS 17892-2 : 2004 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - LABORATORY TESTING OF SOIL - PART 2: DETERMINATION OF DENSITY OF FINE GRAINED SOIL
BS 1377-2:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes Classification tests
NFP 94 059 : 2000 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL AND MAXIMAL DENSITY OF COHESION LESS SOILS
NFP 1994 074 : 1994 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - SHEAR STRENGTH TESTS WITH REVOLVING TRIAXIAL TEST APPARATUS - APPARATUS - PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS - UNCONSOLIDATED AND UNDRAINED (UU) TEST - CONSOLIDATED AND UNDRAINED (CU+U) TEST WITH MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERSTITIAL PRESSURE - CONSOLIDATED, DRAINED (CD) TEST
DIN 18129:2011-07 Soil, investigation and testing - Determination of lime content
XP P94 090-1 : 97 XP SOIL: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - OEDOMETRIC TEST - PART 1: COMPRESSIBILITY TEST ON QUASI SATURATED FINE GRAINED SOIL WITH LOADING IN INCREMENTS
SN 670335 : 1960 ESSAIS; POIDS SPECIFIQUE APPARENT; METHODE 'DU SABLE'
NFP 1994 070 : 1994 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - SHEAR STRENGTH TESTS WITH TRIAXIAL TEST APPARATUS - GENERALITIES - DEFINITIONS
DIN 4094-3:2002-01 SUBSOIL - FIELD TESTING - PART 3: DYNAMIC PROBING
NFP 94 050 : 1995 SOILS: INVESTIGATION AND TESTING - DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT - OVEN DRYING METHOD
ASTM D 4542 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Pore Water Extraction and Determination of the Soluble Salt Content of Soils by Refractometer

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