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ASTM E 2280 : 2017

Superseded
Superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

View Superseded by
superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of the Effect of Upholstered Seating Furniture Within Patient Rooms of Health Care Facilities
Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Superseded date

21-01-2022

Language(s)

English

Published date

23-01-2018

1.1This is a guide to developing fire hazard assessments for upholstered seating furniture, within patient rooms of health care occupancies. As such, it provides methods and contemporary fire safety engineering techniques to develop a fire hazard assessment for use in specifications for upholstered seating furniture in such occupancies.

1.2Hazard assessment is an estimation of the potential severity of the fires that can develop with certain products in defined scenarios, once the incidents have occurred. Hazard assessment does not address the likelihood of a fire occurring, but is based on the premise that an ignition has occurred.

1.3Because it is a guide, this document cannot be used for regulation, nor does it give definitive instructions on how to conduct a fire hazard assessment.

1.4This guide is intended to provide assistance to those interested in mitigating the potential damage from fires associated with upholstered furniture in patient rooms in health care occupancies.

1.5Thus, this guide can be used to help assess the fire hazard of materials, assemblies, or systems intended for use in upholstered furniture, by providing a standard basis for studying the level of fire safety associated with certain design choices. It can also aid those interested in designing features appropriate to health care occupancies. Finally, it may be useful to safety personnel in health care occupancies.

1.6This guide is a focused application of Guide E1546, which offers help in reference to fire scenarios that are specific to upholstered furniture in health care occupancies, and includes an extensive bibliography. It differs from Guide E1546 in that it offers guidance that is specific to the issue of upholstered furniture in patient rooms of health care facilities, rather than general guidance. Appendix X11 includes some statistics on the magnitude of the potential problem in the U.S.

1.7A fire hazard assessment conducted in accordance with this guide is strongly dependent on the limitations in the factors described in 1.7.1 – 1.7.4.

1.7.1Input data (including their precision or accuracy).

1.7.2Appropriate test procedures.

1.7.3Fire models or calculation procedures that are simultaneously relevant, accurate and appropriate.

1.7.4Advancement of scientific knowledge.

1.8This guide addresses specific fire scenarios which begin inside or outside of the patient room. However, the upholstered furniture under consideration is inside the patient room.

1.9The fire scenarios used for this hazard assessment guide are described in 9.2. They involve the upholstered furniture item within the patient room as the first or second item ignited, in terms of the room of fire origin. Additionally, consideration should be given to the effect of the patient room upholstered furniture item on the tenability of occupants of rooms other than the room of fire origin, and on that of potential rescuers.

1.10This guide does not claim to address all fires that can occur in patient rooms in health care occupancies. In particular, fires with more severe initiating conditions than those assumed in the analysis may pose more severe fire hazard than that calculated using this guide (see also 9.5).

1.11The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.12This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.13This fire standard cannot be used to provide quantitative measures.

1.14This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Committee
E 05
DocumentType
Guide
Pages
23
PublisherName
American Society for Testing and Materials
Status
Superseded
SupersededBy
Supersedes

ASTM E 1546 : 2021 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 176 : 2018 : REV A Standard Terminology of Fire Standards

ASTM E 662 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
ASTM E 1474 : 1996 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1546 : 2015 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1354 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2061 : 2003 Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1740 : 2009 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1591 : 2000 Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1590 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1354 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2067 : 2002 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1590 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1474 : 2014 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1353 : 1999 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1321 : 1997 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
ASTM E 2257 : 2013 : REV A Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1740 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wall Covering or Ceiling Covering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 2061 : 2009 Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1546 : 2009 : REV A Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1354 : 2004 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1352 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies
ASTM E 1591 : 2007 Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1474 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2010 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM F 1534 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
ASTM E 662 : 2021 : REV A Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
ASTM F 1534 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
ASTM E 1474 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1474 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1352 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies
ASTM E 1740 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1537 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1472 : 2003 Standard Guide for Documenting Computer Software for Fire Models
ASTM E 2067 : 2000 : REV A Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1590 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 2061 : 2002 : REV A Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 2061 : 2001 : REV A Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1354 : 2002 : REV D : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1590 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1474 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 176 : 2018 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Terminology of Fire Standards
ASTM E 1537 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1354 : 2002 : REV D Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2067 : 2015 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 662 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
ASTM E 1474 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1537 : 2002 : REV A Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 2067 : 2003 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1472 : 1992 : R1998 Standard Guide for Documenting Computer Software for Fire Models
ASTM E 2257 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1321 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
ASTM E 2061 : 2006 Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1354 : 2009 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2257 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1353 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 2061 : 2001 : EDT 1 Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 2257 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1474 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1321 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
ASTM E 1537 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1546 : 2000 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1474 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2061 : 2000 : REV B Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1354 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1353 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1353 : 2008 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 176 : 2021 Standard Terminology of Fire Standards
ASTM E 1740 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other<brk/> Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wall Covering or Ceiling Covering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1355 : 1997 Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1591 : 2013 Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Fire Growth Models
ASTM E 1740 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM F 1534 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
ASTM E 1321 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
ASTM E 2061 : 2009 : REV A Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1472 : 2007 Standard Guide for Documenting Computer Software for Fire Models (Withdrawn 2011)
ASTM E 1355 : 2004 : REV A Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1740 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1590 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1355 : 2012 Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1353 : 2008 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 176 : 2018 : REV A : EDT 2 Standard Terminology of Fire Standards
ASTM E 1354 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1474 : 2020 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2257 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1352 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies
ASTM E 1355 : 2005 : REV A Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1354 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1546 : 2021 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1537 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Real Scale Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1740 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM F 1534 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
ASTM E 1740 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wall Covering or Ceiling Covering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2002 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2257 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Room Fire Test of Wall and Ceiling Materials and Assemblies
ASTM E 1740 : 2020 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wall Covering or Ceiling Covering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM F 1534 : 1994 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
ASTM E 2061 : 2015 Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1590 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1353 : 2021 Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture (Withdrawn 2022)
ASTM E 2067 : 2020 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1546 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1354 : 2015 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2067 : 2008 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1740 : 2007 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate and Other Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Wallcovering Composites Using a Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E 1537 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Real Scale Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1354 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2061 : 2012 Standard Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 1590 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1354 : 2011 : REV B Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 2067 : 2012 Standard Practice for Full-Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimetry Fire Tests
ASTM E 1353 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1354 : 2011 : REV A Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1352 : 1999 Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies
ASTM E 1537 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1352 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies (Withdrawn 2022)
ASTM E 1321 : 2009 Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
ASTM E 1546 : 2009 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1537 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 662 : 2021 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
ASTM E 1472 : 2003 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Documenting Computer Software for Fire Models
ASTM E 1591 : 2000 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 1474 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1472 : 2005 Standard Guide for Documenting Computer Software for Fire Models
ASTM D 123 : 2001 Standard Terminology Relating to Textiles
ASTM E 1546 : 2007 Standard Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
ASTM E 1355 : 2012 : R2018 Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models
ASTM E 2061 : 2000 : REV A Guide for Fire Hazard Assessment of Rail Transportation Vehicles
ASTM E 176 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology of Fire Standards
ASTM E 1354 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1354 : 2014 Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ASTM E 1537 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Real Scale Upholstered Furniture
ASTM E 1591 : 2020 Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Fire Growth Models
ASTM E 1590 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
ASTM E 1355 : 2011 Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models

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