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ASTM E 2899 : 2015

Superseded

Superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

View Superseded by
superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

Standard Test Method for Measurement of Initiation Toughness in Surface Cracks Under Tension and Bending

Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Superseded date

29-01-2020

Language(s)

English

Published date

01-06-2015

1.1This test method describes the method for testing fatigue-sharpened, semi-elliptically shaped surface cracks in rectangular flat panels subjected to monotonically increasing tension or bending. Tests quantify the crack-tip conditions at initiation of stable crack extension or immediate unstable crack extension.

1.2This test method applies to the testing of metallic materials not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. Materials are assumed to be essentially homogeneous and free of residual stress. Tests may be conducted at any appropriate temperature. The effects of environmental factors and sustained or cyclic loads are not addressed in this test method.

1.3This test method describes all necessary details for the user to test for the initiation of crack extension in surface crack test specimens. Specific requirements and recommendations are provided for test equipment, instrumentation, test specimen design, and test procedures.

1.4Tests of surface cracked, laboratory-scale specimens as described in this test method may provide a more accurate understanding of full-scale structural performance in the presence of surface cracks. The provided recommendations help to assure test methods and data are applicable to the intended purpose.

1.5This test method prescribes a consistent methodology for test and analysis of surface cracks for research purposes and to assist in structural assessments. The methods described here utilize a constraint-based framework (1, 2)2 to evaluate the fracture behavior of surface cracks.

Note 1:Constraint-based framework. In the context of this test method, constraint is used as a descriptor of the three-dimensional stress and strain fields in the near vicinity of the crack tip, where material contractions due to the Poisson effect may be suppressed and therefore produce an elevated, tensile stress state (3, 4). (See further discussions in Terminology and Significance and Use.) When a parameter describing this stress state, or constraint, is used with the standard measure of crack-tip stress amplitude (K or J), the resulting two-parameter characterization broadens the ability of fracture mechanics to accurately predict the response of a crack under a wider range of loading. The two-parameter methodology produces a more complete description of the crack-tip conditions at the initiation of crack extension. The effects of constraint on measured fracture toughness are material dependent and are governed by the effects of the crack-tip stress-strain state on the micromechanical failure processes specific to the material. Surface crack tests conducted with this test method can help to quantify the material sensitivity to constraint effects and to establish the degree to which the material toughness correlates with a constraint-based fracture characterization.

1.6This test method provides a quantitative framework to categorize test specimen conditions into one of three regimes: (I) a linear-elastic regime, (II) an elastic-plastic regime, or (III) a field-collapse regime. Based on this categorization, analysis techniques and guidelines are provided to determine an applicable crack-tip parameter for the linear-elastic regime (K or J) or the elastic-plastic regime (J), and an associated constraint parameter. Recommendations are provided to assess the test data in the context of a toughness-constraint locus (2). The user is directed to other resources for evaluation of the test specimen in the field-collapse regime when extensive plastic deformation in the specimen eliminates the identifiable crack-front fields of fracture mechanics.

1.7The specimen design and test procedures described in this test method may be applied to evaluation of surface cracks in welds; however, the methods described in this test method to analyze test measurements may not be applicable. Weld fracture tests generally have complicating features beyond the scope of data analysis in this test method, including the effects of residual stress, microstructural variability, and non-uniform strength. These effects will influence test results and must be considered in the interpretation of measured quantities.

1.8This test method is not intended for testing surface cracks in steel in the cleavage regime. Such tests are outside the scope of this test method. A methodology for evaluation of cleavage fracture toughness in ferritic steels over the ductile-to-brittle region using C(T) and SE(B) specimens can be found in Test Method E1921.

1.9Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.10This practice may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the users of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Committee
E 08
DocumentType
Test Method
Pages
39
PublisherName
American Society for Testing and Materials
Status
Superseded
SupersededBy
Supersedes

ASTM E 1921 : 2009 : REV B Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2009 : REV C Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2009 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <i>T<sub>o'</sub></i>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1012 : 2014 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ASTM E 1921 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1823 : 2012 : REV : EDT 0 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 2007 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 2008 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2011 : EDT 2 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1823 : 2009 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 2011 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2011 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM C 1421 : 2015 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1820 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1012 : 1999 Standard Practice for Verification of Specimen Alignment Under Tensile Loading
ASTM E 1820 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1012 : 2012 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ASTM E 1820 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM C 1421 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1820 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2009 : REV C : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1012 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ASTM E 1921 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM C 1421 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1921 : 2013 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2015 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<inf>o</inf>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM C 1421 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1823 : 2005 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 1997 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<sub>o</sub>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1823 : 2010 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 2009 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 2014 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<inf>o</inf>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2005 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1823 : 2012 : REV D Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 2012 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1012 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ASTM E 1820 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2015 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<inf>o</inf>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM C 1421 : 2001 : REV B Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1921 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2009 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM C 1421 : 2001 : REV B : R2007 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1921 : 2012 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1012 : 2005 Standard Practice for Verification of Test Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
ASTM C 1421 : 1999 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
ASTM E 1823 : 1996 : R2002 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM C 1421 : 2018 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
ASTM E 1921 : 2014 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2019 : REV A Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1823 : 2012 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf >o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2015 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2009 : REV C : EDT 2 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<sub>o</sub>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <emph type="bdit">T<inf>o</inf></emph>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1820 : 1999 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2013 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2015 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM C 1421 : 2001 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
ASTM E 1823 : 2013 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1820 : 2009 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1820 : 2005 : REV A Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness
ASTM E 1921 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <i>T<sub>o'</sub></i>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1823 : 2012 : REV C Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1823 : 2005 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
ASTM E 1921 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T<inf>o</inf>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1921 : 2010 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, <span class="bdit">T<sub>o</sub></span>, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range
ASTM E 1823 : 2011 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing

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