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AS 2832.1-2004

AvailableSuperseded

AvailableSuperseded

An Available Superseded Standard is one, which has been made available for a period of time although it has been formally superseded by another Standard. Its availability is maintained where it is referenced in legislation/regulations or in other Standards and its use should be restricted to where so referenced. No responsibility is taken by Intertek Inform as to the ongoing technical validity of such a Standard, the responsibility resting with the referencing authority.

Cathodic protection of metals Pipes and cables

Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF 1 User , PDF 3 Users , PDF 5 Users , PDF 9 Users

Language(s)

English

Published date

06-03-2004

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1 - AS 2832.1-2004 CATHODIC PROTECTION OF METALS - PIPES AND CABLES
4 - PREFACE
5 - CONTENTS
7 - FOREWORD
8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
8 - 1.1 SCOPE
8 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
9 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
9 - 1.3.1 Anaerobic
10 - 1.3.2 Anode (in general)
10 - 1.3.3 Anode screen
10 - 1.3.4 Anode shield
10 - 1.3.5 Back e.m.f
10 - 1.3.6 Bond (electrical)
10 - 1.3.7 Bond (coating)
10 - 1.3.8 Drainage Bond
10 - 1.3.9 Cathode
10 - 1.3.10 Cathodic disbonding
10 - 1.3.11 Cathodic protection
10 - 1.3.12 Cathodic protection unit
10 - 1.3.13 Copper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4) reference electrode
10 - 1.3.14 Corrosion
10 - 1.3.15 Corrosion cell anode
10 - 1.3.16 Corrosion current
10 - 1.3.17 Coupon
11 - 1.3.18 Current density (at anode)
11 - 1.3.19 Current density (at cathode)
11 - 1.3.20 Current density (at coated cathode)
11 - 1.3.21 Earth (noun)
11 - 1.3.22 Earth (verb)
11 - 1.3.23 Electrode
11 - 1.3.24 Electrode potential
11 - 1.3.25 Electrolyte
11 - 1.3.26 Extra low voltage (ELV)
11 - 1.3.27 Ferrous metal structure
11 - 1.3.28 Foreign (secondary) structure
11 - 1.3.29 Galvanic action
11 - 1.3.30 Galvanic anode
11 - 1.3.31 Half-cell
11 - 1.3.32 Impressed current
11 - 1.3.33 Impressed current anode
11 - 1.3.34 Instantaneous off-potential
12 - 1.3.35 Insulating joint (isolating joint)
12 - 1.3.36 Interference
12 - 1.3.37 Interrupter
12 - 1.3.38 IR drop
12 - 1.3.39 Loop resistance
12 - 1.3.40 Overprotection
12 - 1.3.41 Polarization
12 - 1.3.42 Polarization cell
12 - 1.3.43 Polarized potential
12 - 1.3.44 Primary structure
12 - 1.3.45 Protective potential
12 - 1.3.46 Protective current
12 - 1.3.47 Reference electrode
12 - 1.3.48 Resistance potential
13 - 1.3.49 Resistance probe
13 - 1.3.50 Silver/silver chloride reference electrode (Ag/AgCl)
13 - 1.3.51 Stray current
13 - 1.3.52 Structure
13 - 1.3.53 Structure potential
13 - 1.3.54 Structure potential shift
13 - 1.3.55 Sulfate-reducing bacteria
13 - 1.3.56 Telluric current
13 - 1.3.57 Test point
13 - 1.3.58 Transformer/rectifier
13 - 1.4 COMPETENCE OF PERSONNEL
14 - SECTION 2 CRITERIA FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION
14 - 2.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
14 - 2.1.1 Scope
14 - 2.1.2 General
14 - 2.2 PROTECTION CRITERIA
14 - 2.2.1 General
14 - 2.2.2 Potential criteria
16 - 2.2.3 100 mV polarization decay criterion
16 - 2.2.4 Alternative criteria
17 - 2.3 OVERPROTECTION
18 - SECTION 3 MEASURING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT
18 - 3.1 GENERAL
18 - 3.2 POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT AND EQUIPMENT
18 - 3.2.1 General
18 - 3.2.2 Positioning of monitoring electrodes
19 - 3.2.3 Off-potential measurements
20 - SECTION 4 DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO ACCOMMODATE CATHODIC PROTECTION
20 - 4.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
20 - 4.1.1 Scope
20 - 4.1.2 General
20 - 4.2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
20 - 4.3 COATED AND UNCOATED STRUCTURES
21 - 4.4 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS AND DISTURBANCES
22 - 4.5 TEST POINTS
22 - 4.5.1 General
22 - 4.5.2 Spacing
22 - 4.5.3 Location
23 - 4.5.4 In situ reference electrodes
23 - 4.6 INSULATING JOINTS (ISOLATING JOINTS)
24 - 4.7 ROAD AND RAIL CROSSINGS
25 - 4.8 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
25 - 4.9 ELECTRICAL CONTINUITY
26 - SECTION 5 DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
26 - 5.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
26 - 5.1.1 Scope
26 - 5.1.2 General
26 - 5.2 SAFETY HAZARDS
27 - 5.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
27 - 5.4 DESIGN DATA
27 - 5.4.1 General
27 - 5.4.2 Structure layout
27 - 5.4.3 Cathodic protection current requirements
28 - 5.4.4 Environment resistivity
28 - 5.4.5 Anode characteristics
28 - 5.5 MATERIALS
28 - 5.5.1 General
28 - 5.5.2 d.c. cables
29 - 5.5.3 Test cables
29 - 5.5.4 Anodes
29 - 5.5.5 Reference electrodes
29 - 5.5.6 Electrical isolation joints
29 - 5.6 TEST POINTS
29 - 5.7 REFERENCES
29 - 5.8 ELECTRICAL EARTHING
29 - 5.9 GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS
30 - SECTION 6 CATHODIC PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO STRAY DIRECT TRACTION CURRENT
30 - 6.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
30 - 6.1.1 Scope
30 - 6.1.2 General
30 - 6.2 MINIMIZATION OF STRAY CURRENT EFFECTS
30 - 6.2.1 General
30 - 6.2.2 Minimization of track leakage current at its source
31 - 6.2.3 Mitigation of stray current pick-up and discharge from the structure
31 - 6.2.4 Mitigation of stray current discharge using traction current drainage
33 - SECTION 7 INSTALLATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
33 - 7.1 SCOPE
33 - 7.2 APPROVAL TO INSTALL
33 - 7.3 INSTALLATION PRACTICE
34 - 7.4 INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
34 - 7.4.1 General
34 - 7.4.2 Anodes
34 - 7.4.3 Cables
34 - 7.4.4 Transformer-rectifier equipment
34 - 7.4.5 Prefabricated insulated joints
35 - 7.5 INSTALLATION OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS
35 - 7.5.1 Buried anodes
35 - 7.5.2 Immersed anodes
35 - 7.6 INSTALLATION OF IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE SYSTEMS
35 - 7.6.1 Cabling
35 - 7.6.2 Anodes and groundbed
36 - 7.6.3 Transformer-rectifier (converter)
36 - 7.7 INSTALLATION OF INSULATED FLANGES, JOINTS AND COUPLINGS
37 - SECTION 8 CONTROL OF INTERFERENCE WITH FOREIGN STRUCTURES
37 - 8.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
37 - 8.1.1 Scope
37 - 8.1.2 General
37 - 8.2 INTERFERENCE TESTING
37 - 8.3 MINIMIZATION OF INTERFERENCE CURRENT
37 - 8.3.1 Design of the system
38 - 8.3.2 Methods of minimizing interference currents
38 - 8.3.3 Detection of interference levels
39 - 8.3.4 Control of interference
41 - SECTION 9 COMMISSIONING OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
41 - 9.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
41 - 9.1.1 Scope
41 - 9.1.2 General
41 - 9.2 PRE-ENERGIZATION TESTING
41 - 9.3 SYSTEM OPERATION AND ADJUSTMENT
42 - 9.4 POST-ENERGIZATION TESTS
42 - 9.5 RECORDS
42 - 9.6 OPERATION MANUALS
43 - SECTION 10 OPERATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
43 - 10.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
43 - 10.1.1 Scope
43 - 10.1.2 General
43 - 10.2 SYSTEM OPERATION CHECKS
43 - 10.2.1 Impressed current systems
43 - 10.2.2 Galvanic anode installations
43 - 10.2.3 Current drainage systems
44 - 10.3 STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
44 - 10.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION POTENTIAL SURVEYS
45 - 10.5 REPEAT INTERFERENCE TESTING
45 - 10.6 RECORDS
46 - SECTION 11 DOCUMENTATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
46 - 11.1 SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION
46 - 11.2 COMMISSIONING DOCUMENTATION
47 - APPENDIX A - GUIDANCE ON THE GENERAL USE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION
47 - A1 SCOPE
47 - A2 GENERAL COMPONENTS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION INSTALLATIONS
47 - A3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CORROSION OF BURIED OR PARTIALLY BURIED METALLIC STRUCTURES
49 - A4 TELLURIC EFFECTS
51 - APPENDIX B - MEASUREMENT OF STRUCTURE POTENTIALS USING THE INSTANTANEOUS OFF-POTENTIAL METHOD
51 - B1 GENERAL
51 - B2 MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION POTENTIAL
52 - B3 MEASUREMENT OF STRUCTURE POTENTIAL BY POLARIZED POTENTIAL TECHNIQUES
53 - APPENDIX C - COUPONS AND RESISTANCE PROBES
53 - C1 GENERAL
53 - C2 COUPON
53 - C3 RESISTANCE PROBE
54 - C4 COUPON AND PROBE USE
54 - C5 INSTALLATION
55 - APPENDIX D - CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE OF REFERENCE ELECTRODES
55 - D1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
55 - D1.1 Scope
55 - D1.2 General
55 - D2 CALIBRATION
55 - D3 MAINTENANCE
57 - APPENDIX E - INFORMATION FOR THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO ACCOMMODATE CATHODIC PROTECTION
59 - APPENDIX F - COATINGS FOR USE WITH CATHODIC PROTECTION
59 - F1 GENERAL
59 - F2 COATING PROPERTIES
60 - F3 COATING CHOICE
60 - F4 COATING LIFE
62 - APPENDIX G - MITIGATION OF A.C. EFFECTS FROM HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL POWERLINES
62 - G1 GENERAL
62 - G1.1 A.C. effects
62 - G1.2 Mitigative measures
63 - G2 NATURE OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
63 - G2.1 General
63 - G2.2 Physical damage to the structure or its coating
63 - G2.3 Risk to personnel who may be in contact or close proximity to the structure.
63 - G2.4 Cathodic protection
63 - G3 HAZARD MECHANISMS
63 - G3.1 General
64 - G3.2 Low frequency induction under operating conditions
64 - G3.3 Low frequency induction under fault conditions
64 - G3.4 Earth potential rise
64 - G3.5 Capacitive coupling
65 - G3.6 Conductive coupling
65 - G3.7 Lightning
65 - G4 ACCEPTABLE VOLTAGE LIMITS
65 - G4.1 General
66 - G4.2 Category A (see AS/NZS 4853)
66 - G4.3 Category B (see AS/NZS 4853)
66 - G4.4 Voltage limits during construction or maintenance activities.
66 - G4.5 Voltage limits on buried sections of pipeline
67 - G5 ASSESSMENT OF HAZARD
67 - G6 PROTECTIVE MEASURES
68 - G7 PERSONNEL SAFETY DURING PIPELINE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
68 - G7.1 General
68 - G7.2 Operational activities
68 - G7.3 Pipe excavation
69 - G7.4 Equipotential mats
69 - G7.5 Protective equipment
70 - APPENDIX H - INFORMATION FOR THE DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS
70 - H1 SCOPE
70 - H2 DETERMINATION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION CURRENT
70 - H2.1 General
70 - H2.2 Prediction of current requirement from design parameters
71 - H2.3 Determination of current requirement by field test on existing structures
71 - H3 ANODE ARRANGEMENTS
71 - H3.1 General
72 - H3.2 Calculation of appropriate anode/structure separation
73 - H3.3 Anode positioning
73 - H3.4 Anode positioning details
74 - H4 ANODE MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS
74 - H5 GALVANIC ANODES
75 - H6 CALCULATION OF ANODE OUTPUT CURRENT
75 - H7 POWER SUPPLY CONSIDERATIONS
76 - H8 BACKFILLS
76 - H8.1 Electronic conduction backfills
76 - H8.2 Electrolytic conduction backfills
76 - H9 PROVISION FOR STRAY CURRENTS
76 - H10 SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION
79 - APPENDIX I - EXAMPLE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION FOR PIPELINES
80 - APPENDIX J - GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS RELATING TO CATHODIC PROTECTION
81 - APPENDIX K - CONTROL OF INTERFERENCE CURRENTS-LIST OF ELECTROLYSIS COMMITTEES
82 - APPENDIX L - STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
82 - L1 FACTORS AFFECTING THE REGULARITY OF STRUCTURE INSPECTIONS
82 - L2 LOCATION OF TEST POINTS
83 - APPENDIX M - COMPARISON OF STRUCTURE/ELECTROLYTE POTENTIALS OBTAINED WHEN MEASURED WITH VARIOUS REFERENCE ELECTRODES

Specifies requirements for the cathodic protection of buried or submerged metallic pipes and cables.

This Standard specifies requirements for the cathodic protection of buried or submerged metallic pipes and cables.The Standard specifically covers the following subjects which relate to cathodic protection:(a) Pertinent aspects of the design of structures requiring cathodic protection.(b) Coatings for use on submerged and buried structures.(c) Criteria for the cathodic protection of a structure.(d) Measuring techniques and equipment.(e) The design of cathodic protection systems. (f) The installation of cathodic protection systems.(g) The control of interference currents on foreign structures.(h) The cathodic protection of structures subject to stray direct current and telluric effects. (i) The operation and maintenance of cathodic protection systems. (j) Electrical hazards associated with the cathodic protection of buried structures. NOTE: Guidance on the general use and design of cathodic protection systems and factors affecting the corrosion of buried metallic structures are given in Appendix A. This Standard employs conventional (positive) current flow, for consistency with accepted practice, and uses the potential sign conventions specified in AS/NZS 1852 (all parts). In order to understand the various electrochemical reactions that occur at electrodes during cathodic protection, it should be recognized that electron flow occurs in the opposite direction to conventional current flow.

Committee
MT-014
DocumentType
Standard
ISBN
0 7337 6043 0
Pages
76
PublisherName
Standards Australia
Status
AvailableSuperseded
SupersededBy
Supersedes
UnderRevision

First published as AS 2832.1-1985.Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 2832.1:1998.Revised and designated as AS 2832.1-2004. First published as AS 2832.1-1985. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 2832.1:1998. Revised and designated as AS 2832.1-2004.

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AS 1627.4-2005 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces Abrasive blast cleaning of steel (Reconfirmed 2017)
AS/NZS 3000:2000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
AS 2374.2-1997 Power transformers Temperature rise
AS 2239-2003 Galvanic (sacrificial) anodes for cathodic protection
AS 2374.8-2000 Power transformers Application guide
AS 2374.3.0-1982 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric tests - General requirements
AS 2374.6-1994 Power transformers Determination of transformer and reactor sound levels
AS/NZS 1852.0:2000 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary Introduction and list of Parts of AS 1852 and IEC 60050
AS 2374.1.2-2003 Power transformers Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) requirements for distribution transformers (Reconfirmed 2016)
AS 1627.4-2002 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces - Abrasive blast cleaning
AS/NZS 4251.2:1999 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Generic emission standard Industrial environments
AS 3006-1982 Adequate electrical installations in domestic premises
AS 2885.1-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Design and construction
AS 2374.7-1997 Power transformers Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers
AS 4799-2000 Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway boundaries
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AS/NZS 1518:2002 External extruded high-density polyethylene coating system for pipes (Reconfirmed 2016)
AS 1697-1981 Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline Code)
AS 4321-2001 Fusion-bonded medium-density polyethylene coating and lining for pipes and fittings (Reconfirmed 2019)
AS/NZS 3100:2002 Approval and test specification - General requirements for electrical equipment
AS 1627.2-2002 Metal finishing - Preparation and pretreatment of surfaces Power tool cleaning (Reconfirmed 2017)
AS 2885.2-2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998 Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV - Typical Australian installation conditions
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AS/NZS 4352:1995 Tests for coating resistance to cathodic disbonding
AS/NZS 3108:1994 Approval and test specification - Particular requirements for isolating transformers and safety isolating transformers
AS 2430.1-1987 Classification of hazardous areas - Explosive gas atmospheres
AS 4352-2005 Tests for coating resistance to cathodic disbonding
AS/NZS 3008.1.2:1998 Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV - Typical New Zealand installation conditions
AS 1697-2005 Installation and maintenance of steel pipe systems for gas
AS 1100.401-1984 Technical drawing Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
AS 2374.5-1982 Power Transformers Ability To Withstand Short-Circuit
AS 2374.3.1-1992 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric test - External clearances in air
AS/NZS 1020:1995 The control of undesirable static electricity
AS/NZS 4853:2000 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Welding
AS/NZS 5000.1:2005 Electric cables - Polymeric insulated For working voltages up to and including 0.6/1 (1.2) kV (Reconfirmed 2017)

AS 2885.3-2012 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Operation and maintenance
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AS 2885.0-2008 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum General requirements
AS 3961-2005 The storage and handling of liquefied natural gas
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AS 4997-2005 Guidelines for the design of maritime structures
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AS 1940-2004 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
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AS 5034-2005 Installation and use of inert gases for beverage dispensing
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AS/NZS 60079.14:2009 Explosive atmospheres Electrical installations design, selection and erection (IEC 60079-14, Ed. 4.0 (2007) MOD)
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