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C22.1-15 PACKAGE

Superseded
Superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

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superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

Consists of C22.1-15, Canadian electrical code, part I (23rd edition), safety standard for electrical installations; C22.1HB-15, Canadian electrical code handbook - an explanation of rules of the Canadian electrical code, part I and the 2015 Electrical quick reference
Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Superseded date

08-17-2021

Language(s)

English, French

Published date

01-01-2015

C22.1, Canadian Electrical Code, Part I
Preface
Metric units
Conduit sizes
Reference publications
Section 0 - Object, scope, and definitions
 Object
 Scope
 Definitions
Section 2 - General Rules
 Administrative
 Technical
  General
  Protection of persons and property
  Maintenance and operation
  Enclosures
Section 4 - Conductors
Section 6 - Services and service equipment
 Scope
 General
 Control and protective equipment
 Wiring methods
 Metering equipment
Section 8 - Circuit loading and demand factors
 Scope
 General
 Calculated load for services and feeders
 Branch circuits
 Heater receptacles for vehicles powered by flammable
  or combustible fuels
 Electric vehicle energy management systems
Section 10 - Grounding and bonding
 Scope, object, and special terminology
 Grounding
  Grounding - General
 Solidly grounded systems
 Impedance grounded systems
 Ungrounded systems
 Bonding
  Bonding - General
 Equipment bonding
 Equipotential bonding
Section 12 - Wiring methods
 Scope
 General requirements
 Conductors
  General
  Open wiring
  Exposed wiring on exteriors of buildings and between
   buildings on the same premises
  Flexible cables
  Non-metallic-sheathed cable
  Armoured cable
  Mineral-insulated cable, aluminum-sheathed cable,
   and copper-sheathed cable
  Flat conductor cable Type FCC
 Raceways
  General
  Rigid and flexible metal conduit
  Rigid PVC conduit
  Rigid Types EB1 and DB2/ES2 PVC conduit
  Rigid RTRC conduit
  High-density polyethylene (HDPE) conduit and HDPE
   conductors-in-conduit
  Liquid-tight flexible conduit
  Electrical metallic tubing
  Electrical non-metallic tubing
  Surface raceways
  Underfloor raceways
  Cellular floors
  Auxiliary gutters
  Busways and splitters
  Wireways
  Cable trays
 Cablebus
 Extra-low-voltage suspended ceiling power distribution
  systems
 Manufactured wiring systems
  Bare busbars and risers
 Installation of boxes, cabinets, outlets, and terminal
  fittings
Section 14 - Protection and control
 Scope
 General requirements
 Protective devices
  General
  Fuses
  Circuit breakers
 Control devices
  General
  Switches
 Protection and control of miscellaneous apparatus
 Solid-state devices
Section 16 - Class 1 and Class 2 circuits
 General
 Class 1 circuits
 Class 2 circuits
 Class 2 power and data communication circuits
Section 18 - Hazardous locations
 Scope and introduction
 General
 Explosive gas atmospheres
  Installations in Zone 0 locations
  Installations in Zone 1 locations
  Installations in Zone 2 locations
 Explosive dust atmospheres
  Installations in Zone 20 locations
  Installations in Zone 21 locations
  Installations in Zone 22 locations
Section 20 - Flammable liquid and gasoline dispensing,
             service stations, garages, bulk storage plants,
             finishing processes, and aircraft hangars
 Gasoline dispensing and service stations
 Propane dispensing, container filling, and storage
 Compressed natural gas refuelling stations, compressors,
  and storage facilities
 Commercial repair garages
 Bulk storage plants
 Finishing processes
 Aircraft hangars
Section 22 - Locations in which corrosive liquids, vapours,
             or excessive moisture are likely to be present
 General
 Equipment
 Wiring
 Drainage, sealing, and exclusion of moisture and corrosive
  vapour
 Circuit control
 Materials
 Bonding
 Sewage lift and treatment plants
Section 24 - Patient care areas
 Patient care areas
 Isolated systems
 Essential electrical systems
Section 26 - Installation of electrical equipment
 General
 Isolating switches
 Circuit breakers
 Fuses and fusible equipment
 Capacitors
 Transformers
 Fences
 Electrical equipment vaults
 Cellulose nitrate film storage
 Lightning arresters
 Low-voltage surge protective devices
 Storage batteries
 Resistance devices
 Panelboards
 Branch circuits
 Receptacles
 Receptacles for residential occupancies
 Electric heating and cooking appliances
 Heating equipment
 Pipe organs
 Submersible pumps
 Data processing
Section 28 - Motors and generators
 Scope
 General
 Wiring methods
 Overcurrent protection
 Overload and overheating protection
 Undervoltage protection
 Control
 Disconnecting means
 Refrigerant motor-compressors
 Multi-winding and part-winding-start motors
 Protection and control of generators
Section 30 - Installation of lighting equipment
 General
 Location of lighting equipment
 Installation of lighting equipment
 Wiring of lighting equipment
 Luminaires in buildings of residential occupancy
 Lampholders
 Electric-discharge lighting systems operating at 1000 V
  or less
 Electric-discharge lighting systems operating at more
  than 1000 V
  Recessed luminaires
  Permanent outdoor floodlighting installations
  Exposed wiring for permanent outdoor lighting
 Extra-low-voltage lighting systems
Section 32 - Fire alarm systems, smoke and carbon monoxide
             alarms, and fire pumps
 Fire alarm systems
 Smoke and carbon monoxide alarms
 Fire pumps
Section 34 - Signs and outline lighting
 General requirements
 Enclosures
 Neon supplies
 Wiring methods
Section 36 - High-voltage installations
 General
 Wiring methods
 Control and protective equipment
 Grounding and bonding
Section 38 - Elevators, dumbwaiters, material lifts, escalators,
             moving walks, lifts for persons with physical
             disabilities, and similar equipment
 Elevators
 Escalators
 Lifts for persons with physical disabilities
Section 40 - Electric cranes and hoists
Section 42 - Electric welders
 General
 Transformer arc welders
 Motor-generator arc welders
 Resistance welders
Section 44 - Theatre installations
 Scope
 General
 Fixed stage switchboards
 Portable switchboards on stage
 Fixed stage equipment
 Portable stage equipment
Section 46 - Emergency power supply, unit equipment,
             exit signs, and life safety systems
 General
 Emergency power supply
 Unit equipment
 Exit signs
Section 48 - Deleted
Section 50 - Deleted
Section 52 - Diagnostic imaging installations
Section 54 - Community antenna distribution and radio
             and television installations
 Community antenna distribution
 Protection
 Grounding
 Conductors within buildings
 Equipment
 Conductors outside buildings
 Underground circuits
 Receiving equipment and amateur transmitting
  equipment
 Grounding for receiving equipment and amateur
  transmitting equipment
 Transmitting stations
Section 56 - Optical fiber cables
 Scope
 General
 Installation methods
Section 58 - Passenger ropeways and similar equipment
 Scope
 General
 General requirements
 Conductors
 Wiring methods
 Protection and control
 Branch circuits
 Regenerative power
Section 60 - Electrical communication systems
 Scope
 General
 Protection
 Inside conductors
 Equipment
 Outside conductors
 Underground circuits
 Grounding
Section 62 - Fixed electric heating systems
 Scope
 General
 Electric space-heating systems
 Electric surface heating systems
 Other heating systems
Section 64 - Renewable energy systems
 General
 Inverters
 Solar photovoltaic systems
 Small wind systems
 Large wind systems
 Micro-hydropower systems
 Hydrokinetic power systems
 Stationary fuel cell systems
 Storage batteries
Section 66 - Amusement parks, midways, carnivals,
             film and TV sets, TV remote broadcasting
             locations, and travelling shows
 Scope and application
 General
 Grounding
 Services and distribution
 Wiring methods and equipment
 Single-conductor cables
 Motors
Section 68 - Pools, tubs, and spas
 Scope
 General
 Permanently installed swimming pools
 Storable swimming pools
 Hydromassage bathtubs
 Spas and hot tubs
Section 70 - Electrical requirements for factory-built
             relocatable structures and non-relocatable
             structures
 Scope
 Relocatable structures
 Non-relocatable structures (factory-built)
Section 72 - Mobile home and recreational vehicle parks
 Scope and application
 General
Section 74 - Airport installations
Section 76 - Temporary wiring
Section 78 - Marine wharves, docking facilities, fixed
             and floating piers, and boathouses
 General
 Marine wharves, fixed and floating piers, and docking
  facilities
Section 80 - Cathodic protection
Section 82 - Deleted
Section 84 - Interconnection of electric power production
             sources
Section 86 - Electric vehicle charging systems
 Scope
 General
 Equipment
 Control and protection
 Electric vehicle supply equipment locations
Diagrams
Appendix A - Safety standards for electrical equipment
Appendix B - Notes on Rules
Appendix C - The Technical Committee on the Canadian
             Electrical Code, Part I - Organization and
             rules of procedure
Appendix D - Tabulated general information
Appendix E - Dust-free rooms
Appendix F - Engineering guidelines for preparing descriptive
             system documents for intrinsically safe electrical
             systems and non-incendive field wiring circuits
Appendix G - Electrical installations of fire protection
             systems
Appendix H - Combustible gas detection equipment for
             use in explosive gas atmospheres
Appendix I - Interpretations
Appendix J - Rules and Notes to Rules for installations
             using the Class and Division system of
             classification
Appendix K - Extract from IEC 60364-1
Appendix L - Engineering guidelines for determining
             hazardous area classifications
Appendix M - Translated caution and warning markings
Index
C22.1HB; CE Code Handbook
Introduction to the CE Code Handbook
About the development of the CE Code Handbook
Excerpt from the Preface to the CE Code, Part I
Metric units
Conduit sizes
Reference publications
Section 0 - Object, scope, and definitions
 Object
 Scope
 Definitions
Section 2 - General Rules
 Administrative
 Technical
 General
 Protection of persons and property
 Maintenance and operation
 Enclosures
Section 4 - Conductors
Section 6 - Services and service equipment
 Scope
 General
 Control and protective equipment
 Wiring methods
 Metering equipment
Section 8 - Circuit loading and demand factors
 Scope
 General
 Calculated load for services and feeders
 Branch circuits
 Heater receptacles for vehicles powered by flammable or
  combustible fuels
 Electric vehicle energy management systems
Section 10 - Grounding and bonding
 Scope, object, and special terminology
 Grounding
 Grounding - General
 Solidly grounded systems
 Impedance grounded systems
 Ungrounded systems
 Bonding
 Bonding - General
 Equipment bonding
 Equipotential bonding
Section 12 - Wiring methods
 Scope
 General requirements
 Conductors
 General
 Open wiring
 Exposed wiring on exteriors of buildings and between
  buildings on the same premises
 Flexible cables
 Non-metallic-sheathed cable
 Armoured cable
 Mineral-insulated cable, aluminum-sheathed cable, and
  copper-sheathed cable
 Flat conductor cable Type FCC
 Raceways
 General
 Rigid and flexible metal conduit
 Rigid PVC conduit
 Rigid Types EB1 and DB2/ES2 PVC conduit
 Rigid RTRC conduit
 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) conduit and HDPE
  conductors-in-conduit
 Liquid-tight flexible conduit
 Electrical metallic tubing
 Electrical non-metallic tubing
 Surface raceways
 Underfloor raceways
 Cellular floors
 Auxiliary gutters
 Busways and splitters
 Wireways
 Cable trays
 Cablebus
 Extra-low-voltage suspended ceiling power distribution
  systems
 Manufactured wiring systems
 Installations of boxes, cabinets, outlets, and terminal
  fittings
Section 14 - Protection and control
 Scope
 General requirements
 Protective devices
 General
 Fuses
 Circuit breakers
 Control devices
 General
 Switches
 Protection and control of miscellaneous apparatus
 Solid-state devices
Section 16 - Class 1 and Class 2 circuits
 General
 Class 1 circuits
 Class 2 circuits
 Class 2 power and data communication circuits
Section 18 - Hazardous locations
 Scope and introduction
 General
 Explosive gas atmospheres
 Installations in Zone 0 locations
 Installations in Zone 1 locations
 Installations in Zone 2 locations
 Explosive dust atmospheres
 Installations in Zone 20 locations
 Installations in Zone 21 locations
 Installations in Zone 22 locations
Section 20 - Flammable liquid and gasoline dispensing,
             service stations, garages, bulk storage plants,
             finishing processes, and aircraft hangars
 Gasoline dispensing and service stations
 Propane dispensing, container filling, and storage
 Compressed natural gas refuelling stations, compressors,
  and storage facilities
 Commercial repair garages
 Bulk storage plants
 Finishing processes
 Aircraft hangars
Section 22 - Locations in which corrosive liquids, vapours,
             or excessive moisture are likely to be present
 General
 Equipment
 Wiring
 Drainage, sealing, and exclusion of moisture and corrosive
  vapour
 Circuit control
 Materials
 Bonding
 Sewage lift and treatment plants
Section 24 - Patient care areas
 Patient care areas
 Isolated systems
 Essential electrical systems
Section 26 - Installation of electrical equipment
 General
 Isolating switches
 Circuit breakers
 Fuses and fusible equipment
 Capacitors
 Transformers
 Fences
 Electrical equipment vaults
 Cellulose nitrate film storage
 Lightning arresters
 Low-voltage surge protective devices
 Storage batteries
 Resistance devices
 Panelboards
 Branch circuits
 Receptacles
 Receptacles for residential occupancies
 Electric heating and cooking appliances
 Heating equipment
 Pipe organs
 Submersible pumps
 Data processing
Section 28 - Motors and generators
 Scope
 General
 Wiring methods
 Overcurrent protection
 Overload and overheating protection
 Undervoltage protection
 Control
 Disconnecting means
 Refrigerant motor-compressors
 Multi-winding and part-winding-start motors
 Protection and control of generators
Section 30 - Installation of lighting equipment
 General
 Location of lighting equipment
 Installation of lighting equipment
 Wiring of lighting equipment
 Luminaires in buildings of residential occupancy
 Lampholders
 Electric-discharge lighting systems operating at 1000 V or less
 Electric-discharge lighting systems operating at more than
  1000 V
 Recessed luminaires
 Permanent outdoor floodlighting installations
 Exposed wiring for permanent outdoor lighting
 Extra-low-voltage lighting systems
Section 32 - Fire alarm systems, smoke and carbon monoxide
             alarms, and fire pumps
 Fire alarm systems
 Smoke and carbon monoxide alarms
 Fire pumps
Section 34 - Signs and outline lighting
 General requirements
 Enclosures
 Neon supplies
 Wiring methods
Section 36 - High-voltage installations
 General
 Wiring methods
 Control and protective equipment
 Grounding and bonding
Section 38 - Elevators, dumbwaiters, material lifts, escalators,
             moving walks, lifts for persons with physical
             disabilities, and similar equipment
Section 40 - Electric cranes and hoists
Section 42 - Electric welders
 General
 Transformer arc welders
 Motor-generator arc welders
 Resistance welders
Section 44 - Theatre installations
 Scope
 General
 Fixed stage switchboards
 Portable switchboards on stage
 Fixed stage equipment
 Portable stage equipment
Section 46 - Emergency power supply, unit equipment, exit
             signs, and life safety systems
 General
 Unit equipment
 Exit signs
Section 48 - Deleted
Section 50 - Deleted
Section 52 - Diagnostic imaging installations
Section 54 - Community antenna distribution and radio and
             television installations
 Community antenna distribution
 Protection
 Grounding
 Conductors within buildings
 Equipment
 Conductors outside of buildings
 Underground circuits
 Receiving equipment and amateur transmitting equipment
 Grounding for receiving equipment and amateur
  transmitting equipment
 Transmitting stations
Section 56 - Optical fiber cables
 Scope
 General
 Installation methods
Section 58 - Passenger ropeways and similar equipment
 Scope
 General
 General requirements
 Conductors
 Wiring methods
 Protection and control
 Branch circuits
Section 60 - Electrical communication systems
 Scope
 General
 Protection
 Inside conductors
 Equipment
 Outside conductors
 Underground circuits
 Grounding
Section 62 - Fixed electric heating systems
 Scope
 General
 Electric space-heating systems
 Electric surface heating systems
 Other heating systems
Section 64 - Renewable energy systems
 General
Section 66 - Amusement parks, midways, carnivals, film
             and TV sets, TV remote broadcasting locations,
             and travelling shows
 Scope and application
 General
 Grounding
 Services and distribution
 Wiring methods and equipment
 Single-conductor cables
 Motors
Section 68 - Pools, tubs, and spas
 Scope
 General
 Permanently installed swimming pools
 Storable swimming pools
 Hydromassage bathtubs
 Spas and hot tubs
Section 70 - Electrical requirements for factory-built
             relocatable structures and non-relocatable
             structures
 Scope
 Relocatable structures
 Non-relocatable structures (factory-built)
Section 72 - Mobile home and recreational vehicle parks
 Scope and application
 General
Section 74 - Airport installations
Section 76 - Temporary wiring
Section 78 - Marine wharves, docking facilities, fixed and
             floating piers, and boathouses
 General
 Marine wharves, fixed and floating piers, and docking
  facilities
Section 80 - Cathodic protection
Section 82 - Deleted
Section 84 - Interconnection of electric power production
             sources
Section 86 - Electric vehicle charging systems
 Scope
 General
 Equipment
 Control and protection
 Electric vehicle supply equipment locations
Annex J18 - Hazardous locations classified using the Division
            system
Annex J20 - Flammable liquid and gasoline dispensing, service
            stations, garages, bulk storage plants, finishing
            processes, and aircraft hangars
Index

Overview Understanding and applying the requirements of the 2015 Canadian Electrical Code helps ensure the safety of your electrical installations and reduces the need for costly reworks that can help your projects stay on schedule. Developed by technical experts selected for their detailed knowledge and understanding of the Code, the Canadian Electrical Code Handbook is a valuable tool to aid in understanding the over 200 updates and revisions in the current CE Code. Having both the Code and the Handbook gives you the confidence of knowing that background information, rationale, and explanations of sections and clauses that require further clarification are easily accessible. Benefits of the 2015 CE Code Package: Save $26 cost compared with purchasing the documents separately Plain, easy-to-understand rationale behind latest Code requirements side-by-side with your copy of the CE Code Clearly outlines safety and installation requirements of the CE Code related to industrial, commercial and residential installations Quickly access pertinent information and detailed scenarios to help avoid misinterpretations Provides examples, calculations and graphics that complement your CE Code Added bonus – FREE hardcopy of the Electrical Quick Reference Guide - $25 value

Preface This twenty-third edition of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, was approved by the Committee on the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, and by the Regulatory Authority Committee at their June 2014 meetings in Victoria, British Columbia. This twenty-third edition supersedes the previous editions, published in 2012, 2009, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1994, 1990, 1986, 1982, 1978, 1975, 1972, 1969, 1966, 1962, 1958, 1953, 1947, 1939, 1935, 1930, and 1927. This edition features important revisions to many Sections. Section 4 now contains requirements for high-voltage cable ampacities and clarified Rules for conductor termination temperature. In addition, a new table (Table 39) simplifies residential service and feeder conductor selection. More options are provided for load and voltage drop calculations. Bonding conductor selection has been clarified through the addition of the new Tables 16A and 16B. In addition, Section 12 contains many new and revised requirements for wiring methods, and the conduit fill tables have been expanded. Section 18 has undergone major revisions. Requirements for Class II and Class III locations have been relocated to Appendix J, and requirements for explosive dust atmospheres based on IEC Zone 20, Zone 21, and Zone 22 have been added to Section 18. The requirements are now located as follows: Zones 0, 1, 2, 20, 21, and 22 - Section 18 Classes I, II, and III and associated Divisions - Appendix J Note: References to Class I alone are intended as general references to all classifications of explosive gas atmospheres, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2. References to Class II alone or to Class III alone are intended as general references to all classifications of explosive dust atmospheres, Zone 20, Zone 21, and Zone 22. Specific references to a Zone of a Class I location are references to that Zone. There are currently no references to Zones or Divisions of Class II or Class III locations in the body of the Rules of this Code (i.e., Sections 0 to 86). Other revisions in this edition include the following: requirements for arc-fault protection have been expanded and clarified; Section 50 has been merged with Section 64; Section 62 has been completely rewritten; and the term \"injury\" has been replaced with \"damage\" throughout the Code. Many of the changes in this edition were developed by cross-functional working groups. Their work is gratefully acknowledged. General arrangement The Code is divided into numbered Sections, each covering some main division of the work. Sections 0 to 16 and 26 are considered general sections, and the other sections supplement or amend the general sections. The Sections are divided into numbered Rules, with captions for easy reference, as follows: a) Numbering system - With the exception of Section 38, even numbers have been used throughout to identify Sections and Rules. Rule numbers consist of the Section number separated by a hyphen from the 3- or 4-digit figure. The intention in general is that odd numbers may be used for new Rules required by interim revisions. Due to the introduction of some new Rules and the deletion of some existing Rules during the revision of each edition, the Rule numbers for any particular requirement are not always the same in successive editions. b) Subdivision of Rules - Rules are subdivided in the manner illustrated by Rules 8-204 and 8-206, and the subdivisions are identified as follows: 00-000 | Rule (1) | Subrule (a) | Item (i) | item (A) | item c) Reference to other Rules, etc. - Where reference is made to two or more Rules (e.g., Rules 10-200 to 10-206), the first and last Rules mentioned are included in the reference. Where reference is made to a Subrule or Item in the same Rule, only the Subrule number and/or Item letter and the word \"Subrule\" or \"Item\" need be mentioned. If the reference is to another Rule or Section, then the Rule number and the word \"Rule\" shall be stated (e.g., \"Rule 10-200(3)\" and not \"Subrule (3) of Rule 10-200\"). The principal changes that have been made between the 2012 edition of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, and this new edition published in 2015 are marked in the text of the Code by the symbol delta in the margin. Users of the Code are advised that the change markers in the text are not intended to be all-inclusive and are provided as a convenience only; such markers cannot constitute a comprehensive guide to the reorganization or revision of the Code. Care must therefore be taken not to rely on the change markers to determine the current requirements of the Code. As always, users of the Code must consider the entire Code and any local amendments or interpretations. Scope This Code covers all electrical work and electrical equipment operating or intended to operate at all voltages in electrical installations for buildings, structures, and premises, including factory-built relocatable and non-relocatable structures, and self-propelled marine vessels stationary for periods exceeding five months and connected to a shore supply of electricity continuously or from time to time, with the following exceptions: installations or equipment employed by an electric, communication, or community antenna distribution system utility in the exercise of its function as a utility, as recognized by the regulatory authority having jurisdiction, and located outdoors or in buildings or sections of buildings used for that purpose; equipment and facilities that are used in the operation of an electric railway and are supplied exclusively from circuits that supply the motive power; installations or equipment used for railway signalling and railway communication purposes, and located outdoors or in buildings or sections of buildings used exclusively for such installations; aircraft; and electrical systems in ships that are regulated under Transport Canada. For mines and quarry applications, see also CSA M421. This Code and any standards referenced in it do not make or imply any assurance or guarantee by the authority adopting this Code with respect to life expectancy, durability, or operating performance of equipment and materials so referenced. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ C22.1HB-15 - Canadian electrical code handbook - An explanation of the rules of the Canadian electrical code, part 1 Introduction to the CE Code Handbook This Handbook provides background information on the reasons behind the requirements in the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, and gives an explanation of each Rule in plain, easy-to-understand language. The Handbook is intended to provide a clearer understanding of the safety requirements of the Code. The content of this Handbook is not meant to form a code of mandatory requirements. The mandatory language (\"shall\") that is used in the CE Code, Part I, has not been used here. Care has been taken to ensure that the intent of the Code Rules is clear to the users of the Handbook. However, users of the Handbook must not under any circumstances rely on it to determine the current requirements of the Code. As always, reference must be made to the Code itself and any local amendments. CSA does not assume responsibility for any errors or omissions resulting from the information contained in this Handbook. The Rules in the CE Code, Part I, are divided into two groups. Sections 0 to 16 and 26 are considered General Sections, and the other Sections supplement or amend those General Sections. Therefore a requirement in the supplementary Sections takes precedence over a general requirement. For example, Rule 12-1008 requires three threads to be engaged when making a threaded connection, whereas Rule 18-106 requires five threads to be engaged when making a threaded connection in a Class I, Zone 1 area. Section 4 permits the use of aluminum conductors, but Rule 32-100 does not allow aluminum conductors to be used in fire alarm systems. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2015 ELECTRICAL QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE Preface This is the second edition of CSA Group’s Electrical Quick Reference. It is intended to be used as a companion to the 2015 edition of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I. The Electrical Quick Reference directs the reader to some of the most frequently cited Rules of the Code and other information required by field personnel on a frequent basis. Much of this information is presented in tables that are designed for quick and easy reference. The Electrical Quick Reference also provides useful background information related to electrical terminology and procedures. The final sections contain basic tables specifying trade sizes, standard ratings, and equivalents, followed by excerpts from the most commonly consulted Code Tables and Diagrams. The Electrical Quick Reference is designed to be a quick and portable reference guide in the field. Because the material is not intended to be complete, the Electrical Quick Reference must not under any circumstances be used in place of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I. CSA Group does not assume responsibility for any errors or omissions resulting from the information in this publication. Some of the changes to the 2015 edition of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I are included in this edition of the Electrical Quick Reference. These changes include the following: a new means of assessing how the equipment’s termination temperature applies in determining the temperature rating of the conductor when calculating the maximum conductor ampacity; revised correction factors to be used when determining the maximum ampacity of conductors under certain conditions; revised tables to be used to determine minimum bonding conductor sizes; a new Table 39 to be used to determine the minimum size for 3-wire 120/240 V and 120/208 V service conductors for single dwellings and feeder conductors supplying single dwelling units of row housing of apartment and similar buildings; the addition of Class A and Class B cablebus requirements; new requirements when EMT is to be used in wet or outdoor locations; new Tables 6A to 6K to be used to determine the minimum size of conduit or tubing when all the conductors are of the same size, voltage rating, and insulation type; new requirements for arc-fault protection in receptacle circuits in dwelling units and single dwellings; the addition of the 208 V full load current column to Table 44 for 3-phase motors; and a new Table 68 to be used to determine the maximum conductor length measured from the supply side of theconsumer’s service to the furthest point of utilization on a circuit using 90 °C rated copper conductors at 30 °C ambient temperature for 120 V single-phase ac circuits (2-wire circuits) when used in dwelling units.

DevelopmentNote
Includes CSA C22.1-2018 and CSA C22.1HB-2018. 2015 Edition is still active, includes CSA C22.1-2015 and CSA C22.1HB-2015, available in English & French. (02/2018)
DocumentType
Handbook
Pages
0
PublisherName
Canadian Standards Association
Status
Superseded
SupersededBy
Supersedes

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CSA C22.2 No. 157 : 1992 INTRINSICALLY SAFE AND NON-INCENDIVE EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 52 : 2015 UNDERGROUND SECONDARY AND SERVICE-ENTRANCE CABLES
API 500 : 2012 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR CLASSIFICATION OF LOCATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS AT PETROLEUM FACILITIES CLASSIFIED AS CLASS 1, DIVISION 1 AND DIVISION 2
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-5 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 5: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY POWDER FILLING 'Q'
ASME A17.5 : 2014 ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
CAN/CSA-C22.2 NO. 60079-30-1:17 Explosive atmospheres - Part 30-1: Electrical resistance trace heating - General and testing requirements (Adopted IEC/IEEE 60079-30-1:2015, first edition, 2015-09, with Canadian deviations)
CSA C22 NO. 4 : 2016 ENCLOSED AND DEAD-FRONT SWITCHES
ISA 12.01.01 : 2009 DEFINITIONS AND INFORMATION PERTAINING TO ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 223 : 2015 POWER SUPPLIES WITH EXTRA-LOW-VOLTAGE CLASS 2 OUTPUTS
API 14FZ : 2013 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR DESIGN, INSTALLATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR FIXED AND FLOATING OFFSHORE PETROLEUM FACILITIES FOR UNCLASSIFIED AND CLASS 1, ZONE 0, ZONE 1, AND ZONE 2 LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-18 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 18: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY ENCAPSULATION 'M'
ISA 12.10 : 1988 AREA CLASSIFICATION IN HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) DUST LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 5 : 2013 MOLDED-CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS, MOLDED-CASE SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT-BREAKER ENCLOSURES
IEEE 487-2015 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communications Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations -- General Considerations
CSA C22.2 No. 1 : 2004 AUDIO, VIDEO AND SIMILAR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
CSA C22.2 No. 29 : 2015 PANELBOARDS AND ENCLOSED PANELBOARDS
NFPA 96 : 2017 VENTILATION CONTROL AND FIRE PROTECTION OF COMMERCIAL COOKING OPERATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 269.1 : 2014 SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES - TYPE 1 - PERMANENTLY CONNECTED
CSA C22.2 No. 273 : 2014(R2019) CABLEBUS
NFPA 61 : 2017 PREVENTION OF FIRES AND DUST EXPLOSIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING FACILITIES
DIN IEC 60079-20-2 : DRAFT 2009 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 20-2: MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS - COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS TEST METHODS
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-15 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 15: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY TYPE OF PROTECTION 'N'
CSA C22.2 No. 49 : 2014 FLEXIBLE CORDS AND CABLES
CSA Z267 : 2000 SAFETY CODE FOR AMUSEMENT RIDES AND DEVICES
NFPA 654 : 2017 PREVENTION OF FIRE AND DUST EXPLOSIONS FROM THE MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF COMBUSTIBLE PARTICULATE SOLIDS
IEC 60079-19:2010+AMD1:2015 CSV Explosive atmospheres - Part 19: Equipment repair, overhaul and reclamation
ISA 12.12.03 : 2011 STANDARD FOR PORTABLE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS SUITABLE FOR USE IN CLASS 1 AND 2, DIVISION 2, CLASS 1 ZONE 2 AND CLASS 3, DIVISION 1 AND 2 HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 77 : 2014 MOTORS WITH INHERENT OVERHEATING PROTECTION
CSA B355 : 2015 LIFTS FOR PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES
NFPA 505 : 2013 FIRE SAFETY STANDARD FOR POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS INCLUDING TYPE DESIGNATIONS, AREAS OF USE, CONVERSIONS, MAINTENANCE, AND OPERATIONS
CSA C22.2 NO. 184:15 (R2019) Solid-state lighting controls
CSA C22.2 No. 227.2.1 : 2014 LIQUID-TIGHT FLEXIBLE NONMETALLIC CONDUIT
CSA Z98 : 2014 PASSENGER ROPEWAYS AND PASSENGER CONVEYORS
IEEE 837-2014 REDLINE IEEE Standard for Qualifying Permanent Connections Used in Substation Grounding
IEC 60079-17:2013 Explosive atmospheres - Part 17: Electrical installations inspection and maintenance
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-11 : 2014 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 11: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INTRINSIC SAFETY 'I'
CSA C22.2 No. 123 : 2016 METAL SHEATHED CABLES
IEC GUIDE 117:2010 Electrotechnical equipment - Temperatures of touchable hot surfaces
CSA SPE.1000 : 2013 MODEL CODE FOR THE FIELD EVALUATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
CSA C22.2 No. 60079.0 : 2015 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 0: EQUIPMENT - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
CSA C22.2 No. 327 : 2016 HDPE CONDUIT, CONDUCTORS-IN-CONDUIT, AND FITTINGS
CSA C22.2 NO. 60079-29-1:17 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 29-1: GAS DETECTORS - PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS OF DETECTORS FOR FLAMMABLE GASES
API 4638 : 1996 CALCULATION WORKBOOK FOR OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT FUGITIVE EMISSIONS
IEC 60079-29-3:2014 Explosive atmospheres - Part 29-3: Gas detectors - Guidance on functional safety of fixed gas detection systems
CSA B108 : 2014 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FUELLING STATIONS INSTALLATION CODE
IEEE 802.3-2012 IEEE Standard for Ethernet
CSA C22.2 No. 179 : 2 AIRPORT SERIES LIGHTING CABLES
ISA TR12.13.01 : 1999 FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS
CSA Z462 : 2015 WORKPLACE ELECTRICAL SAFETY
CSA C22.2 No. 124 : 2016 MINERAL-INSULATED CABLE
CSA C22.2 No. 96 : 2013 PORTABLE POWER CABLES
ISO 4225:1994 Air quality General aspects Vocabulary
NFPA 70B : 2016 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
IEC 60781:1989 Application guide for calculation of short-circuit currents in low-voltage radial systems
CSA B44.1 : 2014 ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
CSA C22.2 No. 293.1 : 2017 SKIN EFFECT TRACE HEATING OF PIPELINES, VESSELS, EQUIPMENT, AND STRUCTURES - GENERAL, TESTING, MARKING, AND DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
CAN/CSA-Z662-15 Oil and gas pipeline systems
IEC 60079-10-1:2015 Explosive atmospheres - Part 10-1: Classification of areas - Explosive gas atmospheres
CSA C68.10 : 2014 SHIELDED POWER CABLE FOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, 5-46 KV
IEC 60079-20-1:2010 Explosive atmospheres - Part 20-1: Material characteristics for gas and vapour classification - Test methods and data
CSA S413 : 2014 PARKING STRUCTURES
CSA C22.2 No. 131 : 2014 TYPE TECK 90 CABLE
NFPA 496 : 2017 PURGED AND PRESSURIZED ENCLOSURES FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
CSA C22.2 No. 60079.1 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 1: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURES 'D'
CSA C22.2 No. 178.1 : 2014 TRANSFER SWITCH EQUIPMENT
API 4615 : 1994 EMISSION FACTORS FOR OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 250.13 : 2017 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) EQUIPMENT FOR LIGHTING APPLICATIONS
ISA TR12.2 : 1995 INTRINSICALLY SAFE SYSTEM ASSESSMENT USING THE ENTITY CONCEPT
IEC 60364-1:2005 Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 1: Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions
CSA C22.2 No. 269.5 : 2015 SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES - TYPE 5 - COMPONENTS
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-28 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 28: PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS USING OPTICAL RADIATION
ISA 12.13.04 : 2007 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR OPEN PATH COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTORS
ISA TR12.12.04 : 2011 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN A CLASS 1, DIVISION 2/ZONE 2 HAZARDOUS LOCATION
ASME A17.1-2016/CSA B44-16 Safety code for elevators and escalators (Bi-national standard, with ASME A17.1)
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-2 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 2: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY PRESSURIZED ENCLOSURE 'P'
NFPA 664 : 2017 PREVENTION OF FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS IN WOOD PROCESSING AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES
ISO 6184-1:1985 Explosion protection systems Part 1: Determination of explosion indices of combustible dusts in air
C22.2 NO. 214-17 Communications cables (Bi-national standard, with UL 444)
IEEE 902 : 1998 MAINTENANCE, OPERATION, AND SAFETY OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS
CSA C22.2 No. 62109-1 : 2016 SAFETY OF POWER CONVERTERS FOR USE IN PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
CSA C22.2 No. 208 : 2014 FIRE ALARM AND SIGNAL CABLE
ASME B1.20.1 : 2013(R2018) PIPE THREADS, GENERAL PURPOSE (INCH)
IEEE 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity Tables
EI Model code of safe practice Part 15:2015 MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE - PART 15: AREA CLASSIFICATION FOR INSTALLATIONS HANDLING FLAMMABLE FLUIDS
NFPA 68 : 2013 EXPLOSION PROTECTION BY DEFLAGRATION VENTING
CSA C22.2 No. 65 : 2013 WIRE CONNECTORS
CSA C22.2 No. 60529 : 2016 DEGREES OF PROTECTION PROVIDED BY ENCLOSURES (IP CODE)
ISA 60079-10-1 : 2014 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 10-1: CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS - EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES
NEMA VE 1:2017 Metal Cable Tray Systems
CSA C22.2 No. 62275 : 2016 CABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - CABLE TIES FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
IEEE 80-2013 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
CSA C22.2 No. 239 : 2017 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION CABLES
ANSI C84.1 : 2016 ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT - VOLTAGE RATINGS (60 HERTZ)
CSA C22.2 No. 211.2 : 2006 RIGID PVC (UNPLASTICIZED) CONDUIT
NEMA WD 6 : 2016 WIRING DEVICES - DIMENSIONAL SPECIFICATIONS
ISA TR12.21.01 : 2004 USE OF FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS IN CLASS 1 HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS
API 505 : 1997 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR CLASSIFICATION OF LOCATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS AT PETROLEUM FACILITIES CLASSIFIED AS CLASS I, ZONE 0, ZONE 1, AND ZONE 2
IEEE 484-2002 IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications
CSA C22.2 No. 272 : 2014 WIND TURBINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
ISO/IEC 80079-20-2:2016 Explosive atmospheres Part 20-2: Material characteristics Combustible dusts test methods
IEC 60079-29-2:2015 RLV Explosive atmospheres - Part 29-2: Gas detectors - Selection, installation, use and maintenance of detectors for flammable gases and oxygen
CSA C22.2 No. 56 : 2013 FLEXIBLE METAL CONDUIT AND LIQUID-TIGHT FLEXIBLE METAL CONDUIT
NFPA 70 : 2017 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE
IEC 60079-25:2010 Explosive atmospheres - Part 25: Intrinsically safe electrical systems
ANSI B77.1 : 2017 PASSENGER ROPEWAYS - AERIAL TRAMWAYS, AERIAL LIFTS, SURFACE LIFTS, TOWS AND CONVEYORS - SAFETY STANDARD
CSA C22.2 No. 62368-1 : 2014 AUDIO/VIDEO, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT - PART 1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
CSA C22.2 NO. 129:10 (R2019) Neutral-supported cables
CSA Z240 MH SERIES : 2016 MANUFACTURED HOMES
IEEE 1349-2011 REDLINE IEEE Guide for Application of Electric Motors in Class I, Division 2 and Class I, Zone 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations
CSA C22.2 No. 127 : 2015 EQUIPMENT AND LEAD WIRES
ASTM E 11 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
NFPA 499 : 2017 CLASSIFICATION OF COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS AND OF HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESS AREAS
NFPA FIRE PROT GUIDE ON HAZARDOUS MAT : 2010 FIRE PROTECTION GUIDE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
CAN/CSA-C22.2 NO. 60079-6:17 Explosive atmospheres - Part 6: Equipment protection by liquid immersion \"o\" (Adopted IEC 60079-6:2015, fourth edition, 2015-02, with Canadian deviations)
IEC 60079-14:2013 Explosive atmospheres - Part 14: Electrical installations design, selection and erection
B52-13 Mechanical refrigeration code
ISA 12.04.04 : 2012 PRESSURIZED ENCLOSURES
CSA C22.2 No. 130 : 2016 REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE TRACE HEATING AND HEATING DEVICE SETS
CSA C68.5 : 2013 SHIELDED AND CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL POWER CABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES
C22.2 NO. 75-17 Thermoplastic insulated wires and cables (Trinational standard with UL 83 and NMX-J-010-ANCE-2017)
CSA C22.2 No. 100 : 2014 MOTORS AND GENERATORS
ISA 12.27.01 : 2003 REQUIREMENTS FOR PROCESS SEALING BETWEEN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROCESS FLUIDS
ISA 12.20.01 : 2009(R2014) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL IGNITION SYSTEMS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN CLASS 1, DIVISION 2 OR ZONE 2, HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS
CSA C22.2 No. 211.3 : 1996(R2007) REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESIN CONDUIT (RTRC) AND FITTINGS
NFPA 40 : 2016 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF CELLULOSE NITRATE FILM
NFPA 30 : 2018 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS CODE
ISA 12.02.02 : 2014 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PREPARATION, CONTENT, AND ORGANIZATION OF INTRINSIC SAFETY CONTROL DRAWINGS
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-25 : 2014 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 25: INTRINSICALLY SAFE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
NFPA 77 : 2014 STATIC ELECTRICITY
CSA C22.2 NO. 85:14 (R2018) Rigid PVC boxes and fittings
ISO 965-1:2013 ISO general purpose metric screw threads — Tolerances — Part 1: Principles and basic data
CSA Z240 RV SERIES : 2014 RECREATIONAL VEHICLES
NFPA 51A : 2012 ACETYLENE CYLINDER CHARGING PLANTS
CSA C22.2 No. 269.2 : 2013 SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES - TYPE 2 - PERMANENTLY CONNECTED
CSA C22.2 No. 269.4 : 2014 SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES - TYPE 4 - COMPONENT ASSEMBLIES
IEEE 1584-2002 IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations
CSA C22.2 No. 107.1 : 2016 POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT
CSA C22.2 No. 14 : 2013 INDUSTRIAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT
ISO 965-3:1998 ISO general purpose metric screw threads Tolerances Part 3: Deviations for constructional screw threads
CSA Z32 : 2015 ELECTRICAL SAFETY AND ESSENTIAL ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IN HEALTH CARE FACILITIES
ISA TR12.13.03 : 2009 GUIDE FOR COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTION AS A METHOD OF PROTECTION
CSA C22.2 NO No. 51:14 (R2018) ARMOURED CABLES
API 4589 : 1993 Fugitive Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Operations
NFPA 655 : 2017 PREVENTION OF SULFUR FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS
IEC 61010-1:2010+AMD1:2016 CSV Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use - Part 1: General requirements
C22.2 NO. 126.1-17 Metal cable tray systems (Binational standard with NEMA VE 1-2017)
ASME A17.1 : 2016 SAFETY CODE FOR ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS - INCLUDES REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEVATORS, ESCALATORS, DUMBWAITERS, MOVING WALKS, MATERIAL LIFTS, AND DUMBWAITERS WITH AUTOMATIC TRANSFER DEVICES
CSA C22.2 No. 60079-26 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 26: EQUIPMENT WITH EQUIPMENT PROTECTION LEVEL (EPL) GA
C22.2 NO. 213-17 Nonincendive electrical equipment for use in Class I and II, Division 2 and Class III, Divisions 1 and 2 hazardous (classified) locations (Binational standard with UL 121201)
C282-15 Emergency electrical power supply for buildings
NFPA 20 : 2016 INSTALLATION OF STATIONARY PUMPS FOR FIRE PROTECTION
IEC 60079-13:2017 Explosive atmospheres - Part 13: Equipment protection by pressurized room "p" and artificially ventilated room "v"
ISA RP12.06.01 : 2003 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR WIRING METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS INSTRUMENTATION - PART 1: INTRINSIC SAFETY
IEC 60079-26:2014 RLV Explosive atmospheres - Part 26: Equipment with Equipment Protection Level (EPL) Ga
CSA C22.2 No. 46 : 2013 ELECTRIC AIR HEATERS
NFPA 497 : 2017 CLASSIFICATION OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, GASES, OR VAPORS AND OF HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESS AREAS
CSA PLUS 2203 : 2001 HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS - GUIDE FOR THE DESIGN, TESTING, CONSTRUCTION, AND INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT IN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
IEEE 844-2000 IEEE Recommended Practice for Electrical Impedance, Induction, and Skin Effect Heating of Pipelines and Vessels

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