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ASTM D 1185 : 1998 : REV A : R2017

Current
Current

The latest, up-to-date edition.

Standard Test Methods for Pallets and Related Structures Employed in Materials Handling and Shipping
Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Language(s)

English

Published date

01-05-2017

CONTAINED IN VOL. 15.09, 2017 Describes the performance of pallets and related structures, functioning as skids, bases, platforms, and bins in materials handling and shipping.

1.1These test methods cover the performance of pallets and related structures, functioning as skids, bases, platforms, and bins in materials handling and shipping. Their use facilitates the protection of both packaged and unpackaged products during storage and transportation. The test methods include measurements of the relative resistance of pallets and related structures to deformations, damages, and structural failures which detrimentally affect the functionality of the unit load.

1.2These test methods include conditioning requirements, static stiffness and strength tests, and dynamic tests of structural reliability. These test methods are used to evaluate the relative performance of new, used, or reconditioned general and special-purpose pallets fabricated from various materials including solid wood, wood composites, fiberboard, honeycomb, plastics, or metal, or to compare the performance of such pallets and related structures to specified performance criteria. Recommended criteria for all tests specified in this standard are listed in Appendix X2.

1.2.1These test methods are also used to classify pallets as single- or multiple-use pallets and to determine the safe working loads for pallets under specified load and support conditions.

1.3Nonmandatory Preliminary Tests—Because each pallet may be used under several different conditions of load and support, pallet-design considerations and safe working-load estimates shall be based on that condition under which the pallet offers least resistance or is most severely stressed.

1.3.1Preliminary, short-duration static tests up to the ultimate (see 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4) shall be performed on previously non-tested pallets to determine which load and support conditions influence most severely the pallet load-carrying capacity and safe working loads.

1.3.2During the development of prototypes leading to designs that will be subject to acceptance testing, as described in 1.4, these preliminary tests shall include the free-fall drop tests in accordance with 9.1.

1.4Mandatory Acceptance Tests:

1.4.1General-Purpose Pallets—When the objective of the test is to determine the safe working load or to classify a general-purpose pallet as a single- or multiple-use pallet, all tests described in these test methods shall be performed in the order specified. The same pallet shall be used for all static and dynamic tests, where feasible.

1.4.2Special-Purpose Pallets—When the objective of the test is to determine the safe working load or to classify a special-purpose pallet, as a single- or multiple-use pallet, only those tests representing the intended condition of use shall be performed. Certain special–purpose pallet designs, because of the pallet size, its shape, or the material of fabrication, or combinations thereof, cannot be reliably tested using this methodology. When available, alternative test methods should be used.

1.4.3Field Testing—It is recommended that pallet designs passing these acceptance tests be further subjected to field testing in the distribution environment.

1.5Simulation of the Distribution Environment—These test methods are not intended to lead to exact simulations of pallet performance in the distribution environment. These test methods are designed to relate to practice with the added provision that they are repeatable, do not depend on exceptional skills, and are safe to conduct without elaborate precautions. The test findings are not expected to lead to unalterable conclusions. Testing in the distribution environment may be necessary to verify the results obtained from laboratory tests.

1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warnings are given in 9.5.3.5.

1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Committee
D 10
DocumentType
Test Method
Pages
11
ProductNote
Reconfirmed 2017
PublisherName
American Society for Testing and Materials
Status
Current
Supersedes

ASTM D 6179 : 2007 : R2014 Standard Test Methods for Rough Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates

ASTM D 4728 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM D 996 : 2023 Standard Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
ASTM F 1667 : 2005 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 1761 : 1988 : R2000 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASTM D 4444 : 1992 : R1998 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Use and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters
ASTM D 4728 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM F 1575 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 4442 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials
ASTM F 1575 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM F 1667 : 2018 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1575 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 4332 : 2000 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 2395 : 1993 : R1997 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM F 1575 : 2003 : R2008 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM F 680 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Nails
ASTM F 1667 : 2013 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 1761 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASTM F 1667 : 2011 : REV A Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1667 : 2011 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1575 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 999 : 2008 : R2015 Standard Test Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM F 1667 : 2015 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 4442 : 2015 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 4332 : 2022 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 4444 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters
ASTM F 1667 : 2021 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 4332 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 1505 : 2003 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique
ASTM D 996 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
ASTM F 1667 : 2010 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1667 : 2018 : REV A Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 4444 : 1992 : R2003 Standard Test Methods for Use and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters
ASTM D 4728 : 2001 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM D 4444 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters
TAPPI T 208 : OM 94 MOISTURE IN WOOD, PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD BY TOLUENE DISTILLATION
ASTM D 996 : 2016 Standard Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
ASTM D 1761 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASME MH1 : 2005 PALLETS, SLIP SHEETS, AND OTHER BASES FOR UNIT LOADS
ASTM D 4442 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 4444 : 2013 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters
ASTM D 2395 : 2017 : R2022 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 1761 : 1988 : R2000 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASTM D 4728 : 2017 : R2022 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM D 4332 : 2001 : R2006 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 2395 : 1993 : R1997 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 2395 : 2007 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 1761 : 2006 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASTM D 4442 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 4728 : 2006 : R2012 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM F 1575 : 2003 : R2013 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 999 : 2008 : R2023 Standard Test Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM F 1667 : 2000 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1667 : 2003 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 2395 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM F 1667 : 2020 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1667 : 2001 : REV A Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 4442 : 2020 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 1505 : 1968 : R1979 Standard Test Method for Density Of Plastics By The Density-Gradient Technique
ASTM F 1667 : 2011 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM F 1575 : 2002 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 2395 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 2395 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 2395 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM F 1667 : 2002 : REV A Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 2395 : 2006 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 4332 : 2014 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 1505 : 2010 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique
ASTM D 1505 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique
ASTM D 4332 : 2001 : EDT 2 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 4003 : 1998 : R2009 Standard Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
ASTM D 4003 : 1998 : R2003 Standard Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
ASTM D 1761 : 1988 : R1995 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood
ASTM F 1667 : 2017 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 1505 : 1998 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique
ASTM D 2395 : 2007 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM D 642 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Determining Compressive Resistance of Shipping Containers, Components, and Unit Loads
ASTM D 996 : 2010 Standard Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments
ASTM D 4003 : 1998 Standard Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems
ASTM F 1667 : 2002 Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples
ASTM D 4728 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ISO 445:2008 Pallets for materials handling Vocabulary
ASTM D 4332 : 1999 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 2395 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Wood and Wood-Based Materials
ASTM F 1575 : 1995 Standard Test Method for Determining Bending Yield Moment of Nails
ASTM D 4332 : 2013 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 4442 : 1992 : R1997 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials
ASTM D 4728 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers
ASTM D 4442 : 1984 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials
ASTM D 4332 : 2001 Standard Practice for Conditioning Containers, Packages, or Packaging Components for Testing
ASTM D 4442 : 1992 : R2003 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Base Materials

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